Composting is a crucial process for recycling organic waste and reducing the amount of waste that goes to landfills. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the benefits of composting for the environment and our health and well-being. This guide will provide an overview of composting, its many benefits, and tips and tricks for getting started with composting at home. Whether you're a seasoned gardener or just starting, this guide will help you learn how to recycle your organic waste and transform it into a valuable resource for your garden or community.

What is Composting?

Composting is a natural process that turns organic waste into nutrient-rich soil. It involves breaking down organic materials such as food scraps, yard waste, and other biodegradable materials using natural organisms like bacteria, fungi, and insects. Composting can be done on a small scale, such as in a backyard compost bin, or on a larger scale, such as in a municipal composting facility.

To start the composting process, you will need a few basic materials including a container, organic waste, and some dry materials like leaves or straw. The process involves layering the organic waste with the dry materials and occasionally adding water to keep the compost moist. Over time, the natural organisms will break down the materials, producing a rich, dark soil perfect for gardening and other uses.

Composting has many benefits, including reducing the amount of organic waste that goes to landfills, improving soil quality, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. By composting your organic waste, you can help to reduce your environmental impact and create a more sustainable future.

Benefits of Composting

Composting is an environmentally-friendly way to manage organic waste that has many benefits. Here are some of the critical advantages of composting:

  1. Reduces Waste: By composting organic waste, such as food scraps and yard waste, you divert it from landfills, where it takes up space and emits harmful gases.
  2. Creates Nutrient-rich Soil: Composting creates a nutrient-rich soil amendment that can be used in gardens and landscaping, providing a natural source of nutrients for plants.
  3. Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions: When organic waste decomposes in landfills, it produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. Composting reduces these emissions by diverting organic waste from landfills.
  4. Improves Soil Health: Compost adds beneficial microorganisms to soil, improving its health and structure. This can lead to increased plant growth and productivity.
  5. Saves Money: Composting can help save money by reducing the amount of waste that needs to be collected and processed by municipalities or private waste haulers.

Composting is an easy and effective way to reduce environmental impact and create a valuable resource for your garden or landscaping. In the following sections, we will discuss the different types of composting and how to get started with your composting system.

Types of Composting

Composting can be done in different ways, depending on the resources available, the amount of space and time, and the desired outcome. Here are some of the most popular composting methods:

  1. Indoor composting: Indoor composting is ideal for those who live in apartments or have limited outdoor space. This method involves using a small container, such as a bucket or bin, to collect food scraps, coffee grounds, and other organic waste. The compost is typically made using worms, which break down the waste into nutrient-rich soil.
  2. Outdoor composting: Outdoor composting is the traditional method of composting, and it involves using a bin or heap to collect organic waste. This method requires more space than indoor composting but can handle larger quantities of waste. Outdoor composting can be done using various materials, including wood, plastic, or metal.
  3. Trench composting: Trench composting is a simple and efficient way to compost food waste directly in the soil. This method involves digging a trench in the garden, filling it with organic waste, and covering it with soil. Over time, the waste breaks down and enriches the soil with nutrients.
  4. Vermicomposting: Vermicomposting is using worms to break down organic waste into compost. This method involves using a worm bin, typically made of plastic, wood, or metal. The worms eat the organic waste and convert it into nutrient-rich soil.

Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and the choice will depend on personal preference and circumstances. However, regardless of the method chosen, composting can help reduce waste, save money, and promote a healthy environment.

Setting Up Your Composting System

Now that you understand the benefits and types of composting, it's time to set up your system. While the specific setup may vary depending on the composting type, the following tips will help you create a successful composting system.

  1. Select a compost bin: There are various types of compost bins available, including tumblers, bins, and open piles. Tumblers and bins are ideal for outdoor composting, while open piles are a better option for more significant properties. Choose a bin that suits your needs and available space.
  2. Choose the right location: The location of your compost bin is crucial. It should be easily accessible and in a well-drained area with plenty of sunlight. Avoid placing it near trees or shrubs, as their roots may invade the compost pile.
  3. Layer the organic materials: Start with a layer of twigs, leaves, or shredded paper at the bottom of the bin. Add a layer of green materials, followed by a layer of brown materials. Repeat this process until the bin is full.
  4. Maintain the proper balance of organic materials: A successful composting system requires a balance of green and brown organic materials. Aim for a ratio of 3:1 (brown to green).
  5. Keep the compost moist: The compost should be moist but not too wet. If it's too dry, add water; if it's too wet, add more brown materials.
  6. Turn the compost: Turning the compost every few weeks helps to aerate the pile and speed up the composting process.
  7. Monitor the compost: Keep an eye on the compost pile to ensure it's working correctly. If it's not breaking down properly, adjust the moisture level or the balance of organic materials.

By following these tips, you can create a successful composting system that will help you recycle your organic waste and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden.

Composting Dos and Don'ts

Composting is a great way to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil, but it's important to do it correctly. In this section, we'll provide some essential tips on what to compost and what not to compost, to ensure that your composting system runs smoothly.


  • Fruit and vegetable scraps
  • Eggshells
  • Coffee grounds and filters
  • Tea bags
  • Grass clippings and yard waste
  • Leaves
  • Hay and straw
  • Wood chips and sawdust
  • Shredded paper
  • Hair and fur
  • Manure from herbivores (cow, horse, rabbit, etc.)


  • Meat, poultry, and fish
  • Dairy products
  • Fats, oils, and grease
  • Diseased or insect-infested plants
  • Coal or charcoal ash
  • Pet waste
  • Plastic, metal, or glass
  • Glossy or coated paper
  • Weeds with mature seeds

By following these dos and don'ts, you can ensure that your composting system stays healthy and productive. Remember to maintain a good balance of green and brown materials, turn the compost regularly, and keep it moist but not too wet. With a little effort, you can turn your organic waste into a valuable resource for your garden and reduce your environmental impact.

Troubleshooting Your Compost

While composting is a relatively simple, it's common to experience issues along the way. Here are some common problems that can arise when composting and how to troubleshoot them.


Pests such as flies, ants, and rodents can be attracted to your compost pile, mainly if it contains meat or dairy products. To prevent this, only compost plant-based materials, and avoid adding anything that may attract pests. You can also cover your compost with soil or leaves to deter pests.


A properly balanced compost pile should not emit any foul odors. However, if your compost smells bad, it may be too wet or too dry. To fix this issue, add more dry materials like leaves or straw if it's too wet, or more wet materials like kitchen scraps if it's too dry. You can also turn your compost pile more frequently to aerate it, which can help reduce odors.

Slow decomposition

If your compost pile is decomposing slowly, there may not be enough nitrogen-rich materials. Add more grass clippings, fruit and vegetable scraps, or manure to your pile to increase the nitrogen content. Try turning your pile more frequently to help speed up the decomposition process.


If your compost pile becomes too hot, it can kill off the beneficial microorganisms responsible for breaking down the organic materials. Ensure your pile is adequately aerated and has enough moisture to prevent this. Also, add more carbon-rich materials like leaves or sawdust to help balance the nitrogen-rich materials.

Not decomposing at all

If your compost pile is not decomposing, there may be an issue with the balance of carbon and nitrogen. Ensure you have a good mix of carbon-rich and nitrogen-rich materials, and that your pile is adequately aerated and has enough moisture. You can also add a compost starter to help jumpstart the decomposition process.

By troubleshooting common issues that may arise when composting, you can ensure that your compost pile stays healthy and productive, and that you can reap the many benefits of composting.

Using Your Compost

Once you have completed the composting process, you will be left with a rich, nutrient-dense material that can be used in various ways. Here are some tips for using your finished compost:

  1. In the garden: The most common use for finished compost is to add it to garden soil. You can use it as a soil amendment by mixing it into the soil, or as a top dressing around plants. The compost will help to improve soil structure and fertility, making your plants healthier and more productive.
  2. For indoor plants: Finished compost can also be used to fertilize indoor plants. Mix a small amount of compost into the soil around the base of the plant. This will provide the plant with the nutrients it needs to thrive.
  3. For creating compost tea: Compost tea is a liquid fertilizer made by steeping finished compost in water. To make compost tea, fill a bucket with water and add a few handfuls of finished compost. Let the mixture sit for a day or two, stirring occasionally. Then strain out the solid materials and use the liquid to water your plants. Compost tea provides a quick and easy way to fertilize your plants, and can be especially beneficial for seedlings and young plants.
  4. Mulch: Compost can also be used as a mulch to help retain moisture in the soil and suppress weed growth. Spread a layer of finished compost over the soil around plants, careful not to cover the stems or leaves.
  5. Topsoil: If you are starting a new garden bed or need to fill in low spots in your yard, finished compost can be used as a topsoil replacement. Spread a layer of compost over the area and plant directly into it.

Using your finished compost is a great way to reduce environmental impact and promote sustainable living. With creativity, you can find many ways to use this valuable resource in your home and garden.


Composting is a simple and effective way to reduce environmental impact and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden. In this guide, we have explored the importance of composting and the many benefits it offers. From reducing waste and greenhouse gas emissions to creating healthy soil and saving money, composting is a valuable practice for anyone interested in sustainable living.

We have discussed the science behind composting and the different methods available, including indoor and outdoor composting, vermicomposting, and trench composting. We have also provided tips for setting up a successful composting system, including choosing the proper compost bin, selecting the best location, and maintaining a proper balance of organic materials.

In addition, we have offered advice on what to compost and what not to compost, including a list of common household items that can and cannot be composted. We have also addressed common issues when composting, such as pests, odors, and slow decomposition.

Finally, we have provided ideas for using your finished compost, such as in the garden, for indoor plants, or for creating compost tea. We encourage readers to start their composting system and reap its many benefits. Recycling your organic waste can reduce your environmental impact and create healthy soil for a more sustainable future.